Sunčani časovnik manastira Studenica

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Najstariji srpski i južnoslovenski časovnik; Foto: Manastir Studenica

Sunčani časovnik je uklesan 4 m iznad zemlje, u uglačanom bloku sivo-belog mermera koji je uzidan uz južni portal Bogorodičine crkve (sl. 1, levo). Časovna skala je polukrug radijusa r = 21 cm, podeljen na 12 približno jednakih časovnih sektora, od kojih poslednja tri nedostaju (sl. 1, desno, gore). Nema ni bacača senke, vodoravne šipke koja je nekada polazila iz centra polukruga.

Brojčanik čine slovne oznake, jer u staroslovenskom pismu nije bilo posebnih oznaka za brojeve. Slovne oznake, visine 20-27 mm, idu azbučnim redom, s tim da se preskaču slova B i Ž, a u ulozi šestice je ubačen znak u obliku preokrenutog latiničnog slova (sl. 1, desno, dole) koji je korišćen u XII/XIII veku (u to vreme, na primer, nastalo je Miroslavljevo jevanđelje u kome je ispisivana ista oznaka za šesticu).

Dok je sunčani časovnik bio kompletan (sa bacačem senke), senka vodoravnog štapa je prelazila preko sektora i svojim pravcem pokazivala doba dana. Sunčani časovnik Bogorodične crkve manastira Studenice, i svi časovnici toga tipa, karakteristični za evropski srednji vek, nisu pokazivali časove zvaničnog temporalnog časovnog sistema nego su sami sobom diktirali poseban časovni časovni sistem – likovno temporalni časovni sistem. Za ljude evropskog i srpskog srednjovekovlja ta nesaglasnot bila je nebitna.

Slika 1. Južni portal Bogorodičine crkve (strelicom je označeno mesto sunčanog časovnika)(levo); sunčani časovnik (desno, gore); detalj časovne skale sa sektorima za 6. i 7. čas (desno, dole) (foto. M. Tadić), Manastir Studenica

Linije studeničkog časovnika su izubane, a brojke nedosledno usmerene (sl. 1, desno, dole): uklesao ga je amater, kako bi smo danas to rekli. A ko je to mogao biti?

Znamo ko nije – to nisu majstori koji su vajali kamene ukrase tog portala, niti je to neko od „običnih” smrtnika, protomajstor ga ne bi pustio da mu amaterskim radom „kvari” uglačanu mermernu fasadu. Bio je to neko ko nikoga nije trebao pitati za dozvolu (velikodostojnik), neko ko je video sveta (u to vreme, svetski putnik = hodočasnik), mnoge crkve i na njima sunčane časovnike. Došao je, pogledao južni portal, i odredio mesto sunčanom časovniku. Od protomajstora je uzeo šestar, lenjir i pisaljku, čekić i dlijeto, popeo se na već postojeću skelu, iscrtao i uklesao časovnu skalu, i na kraju između dva gornja bloka postavio vodoravnu šipku.

Đorđe Krstić, Manastir Studenica, 1881-1883.
Narodni muzej u Beogradu

Ko je mogao biti taj „neko”, taj prvi srpski časovničar? Znamo ko je bio poslednji časovničar srpskog srednjeg veka, to je bio srpski monah Lazar koji je u Moskvi napravio prvi mehanički časovnik 1404. godine. Monah Lazar je u Moskvu došao iz manastira Hilandara. U Hilandarskom tipiku se prvi put pominje reč „čas” u smislu egzaktne jedinice za merenje vremena u okviru dana, a ispred ulaza u arsanu hilandarskog utvrđenja Hrusija (starog manastira Svetog Vasilija) otkriven je stari sunčani časovnik „studeničkog” tipa. Hilandar ‒ Hilandarski tipik ‒ Hrusija ‒ Studenica ‒ hodočasnik ‒ velikodostojnik ‒ sunčani časovnik, svi ti nazivi i pojmovi asociraju samo na jednog čoveka, Svetog Savu. Sveti Sava je stigao je iz Hilandara u Studenicu 1207. godine, nadgledao i lično učestovao u oslikavanju Bogorodičine crkve, a onda je jednom prilkom od protomajstora uzeo šestar, lenjir i pisaljku, čekić i dlijeto… i tako je nastao studenički časovnik, najstariji sačuvani srpski i južnoslovenski časovnik.

Milutin Tadić (Studenički sunčanici, „Bagdala”, Kruševac, 1987)

Nataša Stanić, Milutin Tadić (Putovanje kroz vreme  priča o sunčanom časovniku manastira Studenice, „Razvoj astronomije kod Srba VIII”, 2014)

THE OLDEST SUNDIAL IN SERBIAN LANDS

Only preserved Serbian medieval sundial is the one on the Virgin Mary (Bogorodicna crkva) church of Studenica monastery. Of all the Serbian monasteries Studenica has always been held in the highest respect. The church of the Virgin mary was built in the last two decades of the 12th century. In architectural conception and execution it ranks among the finest examles of what is know as the Raska style of church building.

Sundial is carved on the left pilistre next to the doorway of the south church vestibule, at about 4 m height. The semi-circle-shaped hour plate of 21 cm radius, is divided into 12 equal hour sectors. The sectors are numerated in Byzantine fashion by letters A, B, G, D, E, S , Z, H . There is missing the last quadrant of the sundial, the one with the denotations Q, I, IA, IB. There is no gnomon either, which must have been fixed perpendicularly on the wall, in the centre of the semi-circle shaped hour plate of the sundial (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Reconstruction of Studenica sundial (Museum of Science and Technology, Belgrade)

This kind of sundials with differing numbers of hour sectors (12, 8, 6, …) have been manufactured on a massive scale in the Middle Ages. One may say that they were one of the peculiarities of that period. Strictly speaking these were not the sundials in the exact meaning of the word since their shadow did not conform with the temporal hour system then in force. On the other hand these improvised devices have by themselves, through their geometrically ordered dials, dictated a particular division of the day which, considering its duration of several centuries, might be taken as a particular hour system: visual-temporal hour system.

The shape of the letters-numerals of the Studenica sundial suggests its being as old as the church itself, and this was built between 1183 and 1196.

No other medieval sundials have been preserved in the areas of Serbia and Serbian lands. Nevertheless their existence is indicated by numerous exact hour specifications in the medieval Serbian manuscripts. For fixing the first and the sixth – otherwise often mentioned – day’s hours no sundial was necessary, they having been linked with the sunrise and the noon. But the mentioning of the ninth, third, fifth and seventh hour does not leave any doubt as to their existence. For example the hour of death of the Serbian king Dragutin (1282, at the ninth hour), the second Serbian patriarch Sava (1375, at the third hour), the emperor Lazar (1389, at the sixth or seventh hour), the despot Stefan (1427, at five hours by day).

The piece of information from the annals to the effect that the first mechanical clock in Russia was installed at the Prince’s court in 1404 and that it was a work of the Serbian monk Lazar clearly betokens a tradition in Serbs of the clock workmanship. The medieval Serbian clock workmanship is atteszed to also by two sundials of „Studenica design“ found on Hungarian territory. One of these is at the locality Rackeve (Serbian Kovin) on the wall of the Orthodox church whose foundations were laid by Serbs. A similar one is on the Orthodox church in the village Grabocen. In their nortward mass migrations before Turks the Serbs carried with themselves in their memories also the Bysantine „recipe“ of sundial making.

Milutin Tadic (Gnomonica Italiana, 2004)

Izvor: manastirstudenica

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